EU ETS trading must be extended to all flights landing or taking off in any EU ETS member state, but …
EU ETS CO2 emission counting must “stop the clock” at a certain distance CO2 emission rules for flights outside EU ETS airspace must stop at a certain (great-circle) distance, e.g. beyond 5,000 km. This “stop the clock” policy avoids unfair competition from flights with intermediate stops outside the EU ETS. Otherwise, fuel efficient direct flights get unfair competition from less fuel efficient flights with intermediate stops. Continue reading “When to stop the clock”
All airlines of EU ETS member states keep already a record of their fuel bills. They are charged for every metric ton of kerosene that is estimated to produce an equivalent of 3.15 tons of CO2.
1. Wing defines aircraftSturdy, short and swept for speed or delicate, long and straight for efficiency? During the past 70 years, the airliner’s wing geometry hasn’t changed much. Advanced materials allow nowadays light-weighted and delicate designs and all current airliners are optimised for high subsonic speeds, e.g. 900 km/h / M 0.85. Why is this so?Continue reading “The Wing”
1. Airliner’s fuselages didn’t change for 70 years All current aircraft are Tube & Wing designs. A wing, which generates lift, a tube-like fuselage, which holds the load, and a balancing tail. Only small improvements were made to noses, cockpit windows, wing-root fairings and tail-cones. However, these can not improve much further. Continue reading “The Fuselage”
Jet airliner’s engines slow evolution towards fuel efficiency
1. Early jet engines
Above formula shows thrust depending on the mass of air passing through the engine and on the (excess) speed at which this air leaves the engine’s nozzle. Early jet airliners used engines which ejected all air with a very high velocity thought their nozzles. These engines were most effective at speeds close to the speed of sound, e.g. Mach (M) 0,85. Continue reading “The Jet-Engine”
Aircraft manufacturers and airlines will only invest, when getting returns. The CORONA pandemic, its economic aftermath and the world’s efforts to curb CO2 emissions makes continued low prices for kerosene likely. Airlines and aircraft manufacturers will not invest in new airplanes without economic need. Politics must make the regulations, give guidance and stimulation for aviation to focus on fuel efficiency.
Low prices for fuel and CO2 emissions make airlines focus on fuel-thirsty speeds
1.Airlines always get what they wantAircrafts are designed around an airline’s business plan. Designers optimise an aircraft’s fuselage, it’s wings and engines to fly with a specific speed to gain an airline the highest profits. The higher it’s speed, the more fuel an aircraft consumes, but the lower are it’s other costs.Continue reading “The price for kerosene defines the airliners that are built”