EU ETS trading must be extended to all flights landing or taking off in any EU ETS member state, but …
EU ETS CO2 emission counting must “stop the clock” at a certain distance CO2 emission rules for flights outside EU ETS airspace must stop at a certain (great-circle) distance, e.g. beyond 5,000 km. This “stop the clock” policy avoids unfair competition from flights with intermediate stops outside the EU ETS. Otherwise, fuel efficient direct flights get unfair competition from less fuel efficient flights with intermediate stops. Continue reading “When to stop the clock”
All airlines of EU ETS member states keep already a record of their fuel bills. They are charged for every metric ton of kerosene that is estimated to produce an equivalent of 3.15 tons of CO2.
1. Airliner’s fuselages didn’t change for 70 years All current aircraft are Tube & Wing designs. A wing, which generates lift, a tube-like fuselage, which holds the load, and a balancing tail. Only small improvements were made to noses, cockpit windows, wing-root fairings and tail-cones. However, these can not improve much further. Continue reading “The Fuselage”
Jet airliner’s engines slow evolution towards fuel efficiency
1. Early jet engines
Above formula shows thrust depending on the mass of air passing through the engine and on the (excess) speed at which this air leaves the engine’s nozzle. Early jet airliners used engines which ejected all air with a very high velocity thought their nozzles. These engines were most effective at speeds close to the speed of sound, e.g. Mach (M) 0,85. Continue reading “The Jet-Engine”
How airlines spoil fuel in order to keep pilots off their payroll
Flights must be manned with 2 pilots. However, longer intercontinental flights must be manned with 3 or 4 pilots, because legal work and rest times regulations require pilots to have inflight-rest periods.
Many of such flights are just beyond these regulatory limits. Due to the low price for fuel, airlines prefer to fly these flights with maximum speed instead of employing another copilot.
5% to 10%, 3-15 tons, more fuel is regularly burned for such purposes. This practice is frequently used and increases fuel consumption per flight significantly. The lower the costs for fuel, the more likely, an airline will prefer to fly fuel-spoiling fast.